Historically, pathological brain lesions provided the foundation for localization of symptoms and therapeutic lesions were used as a treatment for brain diseases. New medications, functional neuroimaging and deep brain stimulation led to a decline in lesions in the past few decades. However, recent advances have improved our ability to localize lesion-induced symptoms, including localization to brain circuits rather than individual brain regions. Improved localization can lead to more precise treatment targets, which may mitigate traditional advantages of deep brain stimulation over lesions such as reversibility and tunability. New tools for creating therapeutic brain lesions such as high intensity focused ultrasound allow for lesions to be placed without a skin incision and are already in clinical use for tremor. Although there are limitations and caution is warranted, improvements in lesion-based localization are refining our therapeutic targets and improved technology is providing new ways to create therapeutic lesions, which together may facilitate the return of the lesion.