Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) is a promising concept for feedback-based neurostimulation, with the potential of clinical implementation with the sensing-enabled Percept neurostimulator. We aim to characterize chronic electrophysiological activity during stimulation and to validate beta-band activity as a biomarker for bradykinesia. Subthalamic activity was recorded during stepwise stimulation amplitude increase OFF medication in 10 Parkinson’s patients during rest and finger tapping. Offline analysis of wavelet-transformed beta-band activity and assessment of inter-variable relationships in linear mixed effects models were implemented. There was a stepwise suppression of low-beta activity with increasing stimulation intensity (p = 0.002). Low-beta power was negatively correlated with movement speed and predictive for velocity improvements (p < 0.001), stimulation amplitude for beta suppression (p < 0.001). Here, we characterize beta-band modulation as a chronic biomarker for motor performance. Our investigations support the use of electrophysiology in therapy optimization, providing evidence for the use of biomarker analysis for clinical aDBS.